Nigeria dispute jeopardises return of artefacts

Sculptures looted by British soldiers from the Kingdom of Benin in 1897 hangs on display in the "Where Is Africa" exhibition at the Linden Museum

Sculptures looted by British troopers from the Kingdom of Benin in 1897 hangs on show within the “The place Is Africa” exhibition on the Linden Museum

A dispute between Nigerian leaders might jeopardise plans for the return of a few of Africa’s most well-known artefacts, the Benin Bronzes, which have been looted in the course of the colonial period and at the moment are primarily in Western museums, as author Barnaby Phillips reviews.

The Bronzes, 1000’s of metallic sculptures and ivory carvings, have been seized from the West African kingdom of Benin – in what’s at this time Edo State in southern Nigeria – by a British navy power in 1897.

In Europe their magnificence and class brought on an prompt sensation, and they’re broadly thought to be amongst Africa’s biggest artworks.

In recent times, as European governments have come below strain to atone for colonial-era crimes, some have spoken of their need to return looted artefacts.

In April the German authorities stated it wished to present again a whole lot of Benin Bronzes, and a number of other museums within the UK have made related bulletins.

The return of the Benin Bronzes to Nigeria would mark a unprecedented second in Africa’s post-colonial historical past, and is a prospect that appears extra possible now than at any time since 1897.

However when the king, or Oba, of Benin, Ewuare II, summoned “all well-meaning individuals” to an emergency assembly within the Edo capital Benin Metropolis earlier this month, it was not in celebration.

A whole lot answered the Oba’s name and assembled in his palace, wearing good-looking robes, singing his praises. Ewuare II, the great-great grandson of the Oba who was toppled by the British in 1897, warned of an try by what he referred to as an “synthetic group” to “divert” the return of the Bronzes.

This group, the Legacy Restoration Belief (LRT) had the help of Edo State Governor Godwin Obaseki and had deliberate to place the Bronzes in an Edo Museum of Western African Artwork (EMOWAA).

The Oba made his opposition clear.

“The appropriate and solely reputable vacation spot” for the Bronzes could be a “Benin Royal Museum”, he stated, sited inside his palace grounds. He insisted that the Bronzes needed to come again to the place they have been taken from, and that he was “the custodian of all of the cultural heritage of the Benin Kingdom”.

The Oba’s argument is compelling, however awkwardly, his son and designated inheritor, crown prince Ezelekhae Ewuare, attends the board conferences of the LRT he professes to know nothing about. So does Nigeria’s Nationwide Fee for Museums and Monuments, representing the federal authorities.


Governor Obaseki has satisfied a celebrated architect, Sir David Adjaye, to design the brand new museum, bringing status and a wave of constructive worldwide publicity to the venture. Though the Oba now warns anyone coping with the LRT they accomplish that “at their very own danger and in opposition to the desire of the individuals of the Benin Kingdom”, he should fear it’s already too late.

The British Museum has signed a take care of the LRT for an archaeology venture in Benin Metropolis. The German authorities is discussing doing the identical, and funding an LRT constructing to initially home returned Bronzes. These contracts are price tens of millions of {dollars}. British and German officers, in addition to different Europeans, embraced the Belief partially as a result of they believed it and the Oba have been working collectively.

So how did it come to this? Above all, due to mistrust and rivalry between Oba Ewaure II and Governor Obaseki. “It is an ego tussle between them,” says one individual near the method.

The accusations being traded are usually not fairly – of people allegedly extra thinking about monetary achieve, both from the Bronzes themselves or the contracts round a brand new museum, than in rectifying an historic injustice.

Nonetheless, a German authorities official instructed me: “Those that assume there’s cash to be made out of this new museum are mistaken. A museum is someplace you spend cash, you do not make it”.

None of that is excellent news for individuals who dream of the Bronzes going again to Benin Metropolis. An Edo historian concerned in discussions with European museums instructed me the dispute between the Oba and the governor “has despatched a chill by all of us”.

A director of a European museum which has a big assortment of Bronzes, and has beforehand spoken in favour of their return, instructed me: “Our coverage is that if claimants are in dispute amongst themselves, we wait till they resolve it.”

The College of Aberdeen in Scotland stated earlier this 12 months that its museum would give again a Benin Bronze head “unconditionally”. However within the wake of current occasions the museum’s director, Neil Curtis, instructed me he could be “very uncomfortable” if this return occurred with out settlement amongst all events in Nigeria.

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Nigeria’s federal authorities has obligation for the return of any Benin Bronzes, and, it says, will finally “take possession” of them, though the Oba’s supporters stress he won’t ever concede on the query of possession.

The Director-Normal of the federal government’s Nationwide Fee for Museums and Monuments, Abba Isa Tijani, instructed me the dispute between the Oba and the governor was “a non-public matter between them – native politics that can’t decelerate restitution”. He suggests a compromise, whereby Benin Bronzes return to varied museums inside Benin Metropolis, together with one inside the palace grounds in addition to the extra formidable EMOWAA outdoors its partitions.


Some European museum curators blame the German authorities for pushing forward with daring bulletins on the return of Benin Bronzes earlier than they’d confirmed that everybody in Nigeria was aligned on this delicate subject. A German official conceded they’d moved shortly partially due to home political considerations, however extra importantly, he insisted, out of a way of what was morally proper.

Artist Victor Ehikhamenor from Nigeria in front of his artwork at the Pinakothek der Moderne on May 21, 2021

Victor Ehikhamenor is an outspoken advocate for the return of the Benin Bronzes

An ally of Governor Obaseki stated: “Nothing occurs in Nigeria with out drama. I am nonetheless 95% sure we are able to work this out.”

Victor Ehikhamenor is an acclaimed artist from Edo State and an outspoken advocate for the return of the Benin Bronzes. He’s additionally on the board of the Legacy Restoration Belief. Once I spoke to him not too long ago, he remained upbeat.

“We did not count on this course of to be a cakewalk,” he stated. “Colonialism yoked us collectively. We simply want to talk with one voice.”

Barnaby Phillips is a former BBC Nigeria correspondent. His e book Loot; Britain and the Benin Bronzes was printed in April


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